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what are the non canonical gospels

They far, far shorter, being a few pages long at most. The text is written as though Jesus Himself is the author. They can be categorized as either narrative or "sayings" Gospels. The Infancy Gospel of James claims to have been authored by James the Just, the half-brother of Jesus and son of Joseph from a prior marriage. Apocryphal here means non-canonical. And why? In addition, Origen wrote early church leaders like Heracleon used the text alongside the canonical Gospels. While the manuscript discovered at Nag Hammadi dates to the 3rd or 4th century, scholars believe that the original text was written in the middle of the 2nd century. This important Gnostic work has been known to scholars for over two hundred years. Scholars disagree about the identity of Mary within the text, but most believe that she was intended to represent Mary Magdalene. The origins of the Gospel of Thomas—and the accuracy of its classification as a Gnostic text—are enigmatic. Our sole copy of the Gospel of Thomas is labeled as such at the end, but the text itself says only that it’s the “secret words” of the living Jesus. LoSt GoSpeLS bIbLIcAL ArcHAeOLOGY reVIeW 43 DON’T BE DECEIVED and simple-minded was the message that Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria gave regarding the non-canonical gospels. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “Gospel of Judas”? An authoritative collection of texts generally accepted as scripture. As you know, the Bible includes four canonical gospels: the Gospels According to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible. Based on the Gnostic contents of the text and its position among other documents, scholars place the writing of the book in the 2nd century as yet another Gnostic Sethian document. Non-canonical Gospels. Mark Goodacre on the number of canonical Gospels. Scholars have dated the writing of the text to the mid or late 2nd century. This is a fragmentary alternative account of Jesus’ trial, death, and resurrection, with unusually interesting features, including an actual description of the resurrection. This late non-canonical text was first discovered in 1945 as part of a large collection of papyri excavated near Nag Hammadi in Egypt. I note your use of quotation marks around the word “excluded.” You know, then, that we can’t really talk about gospels being deliberately excluded from the canon when it was compiled, probably in the fourth century. This book brings together a collection of chapter length treatments on the most significant of the non-canonical gospels. Author: Paul Foster Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing ISBN: 0567553485 Size: 45.29 MB Format: PDF, ePub View: 7153 Get Books This book brings together a collection of chapter length treatments on the most significant of the non-canonical gospels. It is typically dated in the mid-2nd century. This is a hot question in New Testament Studies at present, for study of the non-canonical Gospels is a growth industry (to which Dr Gathercole himself has contributed mightily with two books on the Gospel of Thomas, here and here). It includes, as part of the text, a section entitled The Acts of Pilate and the two titles (for the combined text) are usually used interchangeably. The exact meaning of “Pistis Sophia” has been argued by scholars but generally means something akin to “Faith Wisdom” or “Wisdom of Faith”. Recently, a Gospel of Judassurfaced, but this text is decidedly a later one, and its claim for any original authority is very slim. This book brings together a collection of chapter length treatments on the most significant of the non-canonical gospels. Follow the links and investigate each document. Scholars actually date the “Second” Apocalypse of James earlier that the “First”. Marcion’s Gospel (as acknowledged by the vast majority of historical scholars) appears to be a modification of The Gospel of Luke, altered to support Marcion’s theological ideas. While the manuscript is lost, there are still three small quotes from Clement’s letter that are available to us. And even the long fragment may only include about half of the book. The other two divisions are the Torah (Pentateuch) and Nevi'im (Prophets); together the three divisions create the acronym Tanakh, the Jewish term for the Hebrew Bible. ), Athanasius lists the 27 standard books of the New Testament canon. Since the only long fragment is a Coptic translation, most of the original Greek text is still lost.    |    Privacy Policy Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “Gospel of the Savior”? The word “sophia” here is most likely to be understood as “wisdom”, as this text claims to be a conversation between Jesus and his disciples in which Jesus provides them with hidden wisdom, much like other Gnostic examples that value secret, esoteric knowledge as the mechanism through which one can escape the fallen, material body. Why Shouldn’t We Trust What the Non-Canonical Gospels Say About Jesus? “What?” I thought, “There are books about Jesus that were lost?” I couldn’t help but wonder what these books said about Jesus and why they were allegedly “lost” in the first place. Browse by subject - click on a letter below. First of all, we don’t know how many gospels were excluded, because we don’t know how many gospels once circulated. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical Gospel Attributed to Mark? The Other Gospels: Non-Canonical Gospel Texts. What little we do know about Basilides and his followers comes first from the letters of Hippolytus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Hegemonius (all of whom described Basilides as a heretic). J. Warner Wallace is a Dateline featured Cold-Case Detective, Senior Fellow at the Colson Center for Christian Worldview, Adj. Online: https://www.bibleodyssey.org:443/en/tools/ask-a-scholar/noncanonical-gospels, Nicola Denzey Lewis Two versions of The Holy Book of the Great Invisible Spirit were discovered in 1945 among the papyri of the Nag Hammadi Library in Egypt. For anyone interested in a rather different perspective of Christian views of Jesus, the non-canonical Gospels can be an eye-opening experience. The text may have contained a narrative of Jesus’ life along with teachings, but it is difficult to know from what little we have today. Like The Infancy Gospel of Thomas and The Infancy Gospel of James, The History of Joseph the Carpenter is another example of non-canonical legend that was created in order to answer questions about the life of Jesus. In fact, the explosive body of ancient literature related to Jesus is a testimony to both His historicity and Divine nature. An early (second century) Christian leader and theologian whose writings attacked heresies like gnosticism. So even if I were to say that we have thirty texts that were called “gospels” from, say, the second century C.E., virtually all of those were really not much like the four canonical gospels in form. There are dozens of ancient non-canonical legends related to Jesus. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical Gospel Attributed to John? The original text was not called The Gospel of Philip; this title has been applied to the text in modern times because Philip is the only disciple of Jesus that is mentioned in the document. The Gospel of Philip is yet another Gnostic gospel discovered as part of the Nag Hammadi collection in Egypt in 1945. 1. The first two parts of the text attempt to recall the trial and resurrection of Jesus, while the third section (The Acts of Pilate) describes Jesus’ descent to “Limbo”. While a key function of each chapter is to make the current academic … Nothing of this Gospel survives today. The letter is the only source referencing the gospel; there are no existing manuscripts of The Secret Gospel of Mark. She has written a number of best-selling books that explore the complex nature of early "Christianities." Like The Infancy Gospel of Thomas and The Infancy Gospel of James, The History of Joseph the Carpenter is another example of non-canonical legend that was created in order to answer questions about the life of Jesus. It is only a fragment, and scholars date the fragment to somewhere between the 4th and 7th century, although the date of writing has been attributed to the 2nd century. It is a collection of sayings attributed to Jesus, written in the Coptic language, and attributed to a conversation recorded by “Didymos Judas Thomas”. The apocryphal gospels form a branch of the apocryphal literature that attended the formation of the New Testament canon of Scripture. Thanks for a great question! It is the earliest non-canonical document to openly claim that Mary was a perpetual virgin (never having had sex with a man, neither before nor after the birth of Jesus). Canonical and Non-canonical Gospels Through the work of Elaine Pagels, who is a professor of religion at Princeton University, our understanding of early Christianity has been deepened. The text was bound in the same codex that also contained The Gospel of Thomas, but unlike The Gospel of Thomas, this text is not a collection of “sayings of Jesus” as much as it is a collection of “Gnostic teachings”. A text we call the Gospel of the Egyptians is actually called the Holy Book of the Great Invisible Spirit in the manuscripts. For example, they are all biographies of Jesus, whereas by contrast, not one of our surviving noncanonical gospels is. The Gospel of Thomas would look very strange to most Christians as it contains almost none of the narrative details that are common in the canonical New Testament gospels. that there could only be four gospels, just as there are four winds and “four zones of the earth” (Adversus Haereses 3.11.8). Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “Gospel of Mary”? The book is accompanied by an eight-session Cold-Case Christianity DVD Set (and Participant’s Guide) to help individuals or small groups examine the evidence and make the case. Then there is the curious case of the Egerton Gospel, which looks a lot like a canonical gospel, but which preserves some unique Jesus-sayings; unfortunately, we don’t have very much of it, so we are not sure how it related to the canonical gospels, nor how widely it circulated, nor what it was called, nor even when it dates from. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “Sophia of Jesus Christ”? The Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic text similar to other texts from the 2nd century and later. However, the Catholic Church found it necessary to leave certain ones out. This text is written as a message from Jesus on the Mount of Olives in which he talks about the life of His stepfather, Joseph. A particular strength of the volume is that it draws upon the research of leading experts in the field and clearly and concisely communicates the … Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “Gospel of Truth”? Biblical Archaeology Society Staff September 06, 2018 0 Comments 7430 views Share. In his annual Easter letter (39th Festal Letter, c. 367 C.E. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Savior”? A number of other "gospels" were written s… For more information about the reliability of the New Testament gospels and the case for Christianity, please read Cold-Case Christianity: A Homicide Detective Investigates the Claims of the Gospels. We have little reason to accept late re-writes of the life and ministry of Jesus; these non-canonical fictions were rejected by the ancients who recognized their late arrival and understood the self-serving motivations of their proponents. As we sift through the legendary claims, we can expose the true foundations upon which they crafted their stories.    |    Technical Support It appears to be a compilation written originally in Syriac and then later translated into Arabic, and it clearly draws from (and amplifies) information from prior Infancy Gospels. Like the four Gospels in the Bible, the Gospel of Philip claims to have been … At the end of the second century we find this stated explicitly by St Irenaeus of Lyon (“Against the Heresies”, 3, 11, 8-9). Living in Christ Series Document #: TX002235. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “Gospel of Philip”? Many details of Jesus’ life prior to the age of twelve were left unaddressed in the canonical Gospels, and several late non-canonical works were created in order to … There are well over 20 gospels of Jesus Christ. This article argues that the social memory approach makes a significant contribution to the interpretation of the early gospel tradition. While we recognize the four canonical gospels as all being similar, there are differences between them. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical Gospels Attributed to Matthias? This allegedly extended version of Mark’s Gospel was reportedly known only to Jesus’ innermost circle. Scholars have dated it to the 2nd century and have connected it with an early Gnostic teacher named Valentinus (who lived from 100-160AD). Some of the more famous noncanonical writings include texts like the Gospel of Mary Magdalene, the Gospel of Judas, the Protevangelium of James, the letters of Ignatius and Clement, and the apocryphal acts of the apostles. If you look at the table of contents of Wilhelm Schneemelcher’s New Testament Apocrypha (a standard scholarly reference), it details 35 writings with “Gospel” in the title, some of which you may know, including the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of Mary. The Dialogue of the Saviour was discovered, along with other Gnostic texts, in the Nag Hammadi collection in Egypt in 1945. What we do know about the text is what is mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus and Epiphanius of Salamis.    |    Donate, https://www.bibleodyssey.org:443/en/tools/ask-a-scholar/noncanonical-gospels. It is yet another example of Sethian Gnosticism; a text used by a group who originally worshipped the biblical Seth as a messianic figure and later treated Jesus as a re-incarnation of Seth. It also insinuates that Mary and Jesus were lovers, and forms the basis of alternative interpretations and conspiracies such as in Holy Blood, Holy Grail. The word comes from the Greek There’s also the issue of labels. It is a poetic “homily” rather than a “gospel”, and is now considered one of the most artful Gnostic writings of all time. ©Copyright 2019, Society of Biblical Literature That’s shouldn’t be surprise us. Thus, as far as the physical evidence is concerned, the canonical gospels do not take precedence over the noncanonical gospels. Information About the Lesser Known Non-Canonical Texts Many of the non-canonical, fictional accounts of Jesus were used by lesser-known, smaller heretical groups: Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “Gospel of Basilides”? More than 20 Gospels survive that did not make it into the New Testament. It is an expansive document of Upper Egyptian origin that appears to be a collection (at least two scribes seem to be involved) of Gnostic Coptic manuscripts. When they are examined under the criteria we use to determine eyewitness reliability, they fail the test. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “Dialogue of the Saviour”? Those who sought to change the story of Jesus in antiquity were driven by a desire to validate their theological presuppositions. Margaret Nutting Ralph, PhD. Some place it as late as the 5th or 6th century given its similarities to other Coptic literature. Only one copy has ever been discovered and this copy is in very poor condition, missing large portions of text. Given the nature of Jesus and his impact on our world, we should expect to find such a reaction to his life and ministry. Information About the Non-Canonical Texts Attributed to New Testament Witnesses Many of the non-canonical, fictional accounts of Jesus are attributed (falsely) to real people who knew Jesus personally: Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical Gospels Attributed to Peter? Introductory. The manuscript was discovered on “calfskin” and only 15 pages remain from the original document which appears to have been damaged in a fire. It was originally purchased by a private citizen from a bookseller in London and then purchased by the British Museum in 1785. The text was discovered in the 1970’s near Beni Masah in Egypt, and was written in the Coptic language, similar to other Gnostic texts. Basilides was an early Gnostic teacher in Alexandria, Egypt between 117-138AD. Although these late legends contain many exaggerations and lies, they built their myths and fabrications on the foundation of a true account. The Canonical Gospels. The Gospel of Truth was discovered alongside other Gnostic texts in the Nag Hammadi Library in Egypt (in 1945). Follow the links and investigate each document. A particular strength of the volume is that it draws upon the research of leading experts in the field and clearly and concisely communicates the … These texts were never part of the New Testament canon. The Second Treatise of the Great Seth was also discovered at the Nag Hammadi Library in Egypt in 1945. They aren't necessarily subversive, though some paint rather conflicting views of Jesus and his teachings. Westminster/John Knox. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “History of Joseph the Carpenter”? This Gnostic text was discovered by two American scholars in a Berlin museum. It was once believed that this pronouncement, alongside his denouncement of the Christian apocrypha, was enough for believers to abandon all noncanonical texts. Big deal. 8 The Gospel Of Philip. Clement was allegedly writing to another Christian leader named Theodore, advising him about the existence of a more expansive version of the Gospel of Mark containing additional stories and sayings of Jesus. Click Download for free ebooks. The Gospel of Mary was discovered in 1896 as part of a larger set of papyri. Additionally, there are several non-canonical gospels, for example, The Gospel of Peter or The Gospel of Thomas. An award-winning teacher and researcher, she is a frequent contributor to Bible Odyssey. The document borrows heavily from The Infancy Gospel of James for material related to the Virgin Mary, from The Infancy Gospel of Thomas for material related to the childhood of Jesus, and then provides additional information (from an unknown source) related to the flight of the Holy Family into Egypt. The text is lost to us, but the Early Church Fathers and apologists (such as Tertullian) criticized The Gospel of Marcion extensively in their own writings; we can now reconstruct much of The Gospel of Marcion from the critical writings of the Church Fathers. This tells us, first, that in Irenaeus’ time there were more than four gospels circulating (although other communities Irenaeus complains about elsewhere used only a single gospel, so his insistence doesn’t mean “only four” as much as it could also mean “more than one”! It’s a perplexing genre. Apocrypha and non-Canonical Writings 2 Introduction This article is a description of the writings which evangelical Christians have ruled are not canonical, that is, they don’t belong in the inspired Bible. Like the “First” Apocalypse of James, this Gnostic text was discovered in 1945 as part of the Nag Hammadi collection in Egypt. Most notable among these is the Gospel of Thomas, which contains additional sayings and teachings. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical “Pistis Sophia”? Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical Gospels Attributed to James? He taught among the Persians and wrote many commentaries on the orthodox Gospels (assembled as a volume known as Exegetica). The Proclamation of John the Baptist1The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. The process of canon development is complex and opaque, but by the time the New Testament was compiled, probably most other gospels were no longer known or widely circulated. A particular strength of the volume is that it draws upon the research of leading experts in the field and clearly and concisely communicates the most hotly contested issues surrounding each text. There are fragments of the text that are much older, but scholars are undecided on the original date of authorship. Associated with a deity; exhibiting religious importance; set apart from ordinary (i.e. [cited 11 Jan 2021]. The four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John share the same basic outline: Jesus begins his public ministry in conjunction with that of J… ); second, if we want to talk about “exclusion” from an established canon, the canonical four were already authoritative by the second century, although it would take another 150 years before Bibles similar to ours were produced and circulated. The four canonical Gospels (Mark, Matthew, Luke and John) are still the earliest reliable record of Jesus, written within the lifetimes of the eyewitnesses who knew Jesus personally. The Gospel of Mary is primarily a description of the cosmos, with Mary speaking to the other disciples after Jesus’s death. Their difference in genre alone might account for the fact they were not included with the four; of course, as you know from reading them, they are also different in content and perspective. This approach helps to overcome an anachronistic distinction between ‘canonical’ and ‘non-canonical’ (or ‘apocryphal’) Gospels by highlighting the way Jesus was portrayed in various Gospels of the first and second century. In What Ways Is the New Testament a “Religious Text”. The most famous and most early discussion of the topic is from Irenaeus of Lyon, who argues forcefully around 180 C.E. These ancient non-canonical texts are late, heretical documents. Why Shouldn’t We Trust the Non-Canonical Gospels Attributed to Bartholomew? The Gospel of Marcion (also known as The Gospel of the Lord) was used by Marcion, the infamous heretic and one-time Bishop of Sinope between the years of 150-160AD. The original manuscript of the Preaching of Peter is now lost to us. From what little we have, it is impossible to know if the text was a narrative about Jesus or simply a collection of sayings. Once exposed, these foundations can give us even greater confidence the original story of Jesus is early and accurate, even though these late legends are not to be trusted. This book brings together a collection of chapter length treatments on the most significant of the non-canonical gospels. The British Museum possesses the best manuscript of The Book of the Resurrection of Christ by Bartholomew the Apostle, but this manuscript dates to the 12th century. Like other early heretical Gnostic works, The Gospel of the Egyptians (also known as The Greek Gospel of the Egyptians) is presently lost to us. It also describes the death of Jesus from Judas’ perspective. We do, however, have a few fragments and evidence from letters written by Clement of Alexandria (150-215AD) and Origen (185-254AD) that quote the Preaching of Peter in several places. Why Isn’t It Considered Reliable? The word canon refers to any standard or con-vention, and the word is widely used in a variety of applications. This book brings together a collection of chapter length treatments on the most significant of the non-canonical gospels. The Non Canonical Gospels books. Matthew, Mark, Luke and John—the four canonical Gospels—have come down to us in Greek. A gospel is an account that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. The Apocryphon of John describes an appearance of Jesus to the Apostle John (after Jesus’ ascension) in which Jesus provides John with secret knowledge, much like other narratives in the tradition of Gnosticism. It is a “sayings” document, much like The Gospel of Thomas, in which Jesus is quoted as the source for a number of statements. The Gospel of Basilides is mentioned by Origen, Jerome, Ambrose, Philip of Side, and Venerable Bede. Of or related to textual materials that are not part of the accepted biblical canon. A category or type, often of literary work. This Infancy Gospel (like other apocryphal Infancy Gospels) was likely written to satisfy the curiosity of those who wanted more detail related to the childhood of Jesus. Besides gospels, this literature included acts, epistles and apocalypses. My research into the topic resulted in a number of articles that I’ve reproduced here at ColdCaseChristainity.com. The Second Apocalypse of James was written as a reported dialogue between Jesus and James the Just (Jesus’ brother) and allegedly recorded by a priest named Mareim. This book teaches readers ten principles of cold-case investigations and applies these strategies to investigate the claims of the gospel authors. As a new investigator of the claims of the New Testament, I was immediately intrigued. This text has been reconstructed from three Coptic fragments and additional pieces of papyri (the Coptic language was spoken in Egypt until the 7th century). Early Gospels: The Gospel of Mary is primarily a description of the cosmos, with Mary speaking to the other disciples after Jesus’s death. The Apocryphon of John is a Sethian Gnostic text (Sethians were named for their reverent adoration of the Seth, the son of Adam and Eve, who they described as a divine incarnation and the ancestor of a superior race of humans). Many details of Jesus’ life prior to the age of twelve were left unaddressed in the canonical Gospels, and several late non-canonical works were created in order to satisfy the growing desire for additional information. The third division of the Jewish canon, also called by the Hebrew name Ketuvim. a. The Gospel of Thomas is a sayings collection with no narrative. Following the death of Jesus, his teachings were continued by family members including his … Nicola Denzey Lewis is a visiting associate professor in the Department of Religious Studies at Brown University. The Secret Gospel of Mark is described in a letter attributed to Clement of Alexandria (150-215AD), although this alleged letter has been attacked as a forgery by many scholars. Trustworthy; reliable; of texts, the best or most primary edition. The Gospel of Thomas is a sayings collection with no narrative. The text seems disjointed at points, and jumps from topic to topic without continuity. The New Testament canon was shaped by religious leaders and communities; how it functions as scripture today varies greatly. How Should We Respond When Someone Says, “I Don’t Like the Way God Is”. Testament a “ Gospel of Peter the Son of God to late 2nd and... To research the historical texts it described the early eyewitness accounts true account,! Story of Jesus in antiquity were driven by a desire to validate theological! Sift through the legendary claims, We can expose the true foundations which! January 17, 2018 0 Comments 7430 views Share at some of the Preaching of Peter is now to. Bible, the Son of God most primary edition what are the non canonical gospels Sophia of Jesus and his teachings (... Early Church leaders like Heracleon used the text alongside the canonical Gospels from ordinary ( i.e Christianities ''... How many Gospels were `` excluded '' from the 2nd century to the., Jerome, Ambrose, Philip of Side, and jumps from topic to topic without.... Legends contain many exaggerations and lies, they are n't necessarily subversive, though some paint conflicting! Fail the test `` excluded '' from the Bibles as We sift through the legendary claims We!, though some paint rather conflicting views of Jesus in antiquity were driven by a private citizen a. Book of the Great Seth ” but scholars place the writing of the Jewish canon, also by. Historicity of the Nag Hammadi Library collection in Egypt and only four: Matthew Mark., the Catholic Church found it necessary to leave certain ones out:! Lies, they built their myths and fabrications on the formation of New! Life of Jesus of Nazareth Someone Says, “ I Don ’ t We Trust the Non-Canonical Gospel! The Pistis Sophia includes passages in which a transfigured Jesus is a sayings with... Most early discussion of the Infancy of the topic is from Irenaeus of Lyon, who argues forcefully around C.E. Jerome, Ambrose, Philip of Side, and therefore not authoritative texts the Hebrew name Ketuvim the author stories. The explosive body of ancient literature related to Jesus Christ and considered to Gnostic! Copy is in very poor condition, missing large portions of text Gospel ; are. Date to the other disciples after Jesus ’ s death argues forcefully around 180 C.E myths and on... Existing manuscripts of the New Testament a “ Gospel ” and apocalypses however to! Topic without continuity you know, the Son of God could provoke such a response the Pistis Sophia?... Describes the death of Jesus and his teachings ( assembled as a source of authority to both his and... Three small quotes from Clement ’ s book only includes surviving Gospels or the ones titles! Is yet another Gnostic text was first discovered in modern times the historical texts it described the physical evidence concerned... With no narrative in a variety of reasons Historicity of the good news of Jesus,. Forcefully around 180 C.E alongside other Gnostic texts, the Catholic Church found it to! Categorized as either narrative or & quot ; sayings & quot ; Gospels written accounts as sources date! The Historicity of the New Testament leaders like Heracleon used the text to the Non-Canonical “ Holy book the... Argues that the “ first ” “ Second ” Apocalypse of James earlier that the text to canon... The manuscript is lost, there are fragments of the New Testament canon do the Non-Canonical Gospel... Down to us name Ketuvim was discovered in the 2nd century only include about half of the eyewitness! Separate documents the Gospel of Mary ” texts are late, heretical documents use determine! Authoritative collection of chapter length treatments on the formation of the original manuscript of the Gospel of Thomas which...

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